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1774, Manganese Discovered



The Following Content Provided by: USANA, The Cellular Nutrition Company.
MANGANESE
Manganese performs a number of essential roles in cellular function and human metabolism. At the biochemical level, manganese functions both as a constituent of metallo-enzymes and an enzyme activator. It is an important constituent of an enzyme called manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) which helps protect tissues against oxidative damage.

Manganese deficiencies are relatively rare in humans, but research in animal models predicts possible contributions to bone and joint abnormalities, impaired pancreatic function, ataxia, reduced growth, impaired reproductive performance, and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

While manganese is abundant and widely distributed in nature, only trace amounts are required by the human body. The best food sources tend to be nuts, cereals, and dried fruit.

Although isolated cases of manganese toxicosis have occurred from dietary exposure, dangerous levels are typically seen only in individuals exposed to unusually high respiratory levels (such as those found in certain work environments).

The Following Content Provided by: Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute
Manganese is a mineral element that is both nutritionally essential and potentially toxic. The derivation of its name from the Greek word for magic remains appropriate, because scientists are still working to understand the diverse effects of manganese deficiency and manganese toxicity in living organisms.


Function
Manganese (Mn) plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes as a constituent of multiple enzymes and an activator of other enzymes.

Antioxidant function
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria. Because mitochondria consume over 90% of the oxygen used by cells, they are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress. The superoxide radical is one of the reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria during ATP synthesis. MnSOD catalyzes the conversion of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which can be reduced to water by other antioxidant enzymes.

Metabolism
A number of manganese-activated enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Pyruvate carboxylase, a manganese-containing enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a manganese-activated enzyme, are critical in gluconeogenesis — the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. Arginase, another manganese-containing enzyme, is required by the liver for the urea cycle, a process that detoxifies ammonia generated during amino acid metabolism. In the brain, the manganese-activated enzyme, glutamine synthetase, converts the amino acid glutamate to glutamine. Glutamate is an excitotoxic neurotransmitter and a precursor to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Bone Development
Manganese deficiency results in abnormal skeletal development in a number of animal species. Manganese is the preferred cofactor of enzymes called glycosyltransferases; these enzymes are required for the synthesis of proteoglycans that are needed for the formation of healthy cartilage and bone.

Wound Healing
Wound healing is a complex process that requires increased production of collagen. Manganese is required for the activation of prolidase, an enzyme that functions to provide the amino acid, proline, for collagen formation in human skin cells. A genetic disorder known as prolidase deficiency results in abnormal wound healing among other problems, and is characterized by abnormal manganese metabolism. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which requires manganese-activated glycosyltransferases, may also play an important role in wound healing.

Nutrient interactions

Iron
Although the specific mechanisms for manganese absorption and transport have not been determined, some evidence suggests that iron and manganese can share common absorption and transport pathways. Absorption of manganese from a meal decreases as the meal's iron content increases.

 
Magnesium
Supplemental magnesium (200 mg/day) has been shown to slightly decrease manganese bioavailability in healthy adults, either by decreasing manganese absorption or by increasing its excretion.

Calcium
In one set of studies, supplemental calcium (500 mg/day) slightly decreased manganese bioavailability in healthy adults. As a source of calcium, milk had the least effect, while calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate had the greatest effect.

Deficiency
Manganese deficiency has been observed in a number of animal species. Signs of manganese deficiency include impaired growth, impaired reproductive function, skeletal abnormalities, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In humans, demonstration of a manganese deficiency syndrome has been less clear. A child on long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) lacking manganese developed bone demineralization and impaired growth that were corrected by manganese supplementation.

Disease Prevention 
Low dietary manganese or low levels of manganese in blood or tissue have been associated with several chronic diseases.

Osteoporosis
Women with osteoporosis have been found to have decreased plasma or serum levels of manganese and also an enhanced plasma response to an oral dose of manganese (19, 20), suggesting they may have lower manganese status than women without osteoporosis.

Epilepsy (seizure disorders)
Manganese deficient rats are more susceptible to seizures than manganese sufficient rats, and rats that are genetically prone to epilepsy have lower than normal brain and blood manganese levels. Certain subgroups of humans with epilepsy reportedly have lower whole blood manganese levels than non-epileptic controls.

Safety

Toxicity
Inhaled manganese
Manganese toxicity may result in multiple neurologic problems and is a well-recognized health hazard for people who inhale manganese dust, such as welders and smelters. Unlike ingested manganese, inhaled manganese is transported directly to the brain before it can be metabolized in the liver. The symptoms of manganese toxicity generally appear slowly over a period of months to years. In its worst form, manganese toxicity can result in a permanent neurological disorder with symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease, including tremors, difficulty walking, and facial muscle spasms.

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)

MMT is a manganese-containing compound used in gasoline as an anti-knock additive. Although it has been used for this purpose in Canada for more than 20 years, uncertainty about adverse health effects from inhaled exhaust emissions kept the US EPA from approving its use in unleaded gasoline. In 1995, a US court decision made MMT available for widespread use in unleaded gasoline.

 
The Following Content Provided by: University of Maryland Medical Center
Manganese
Overview
Manganese is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mostly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which helps fight free radicals. Free radicals occur naturally in the body but can damage cell membranes and DNA. They may play a role in aging, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants, such as SOD, can help neutralize free radicals and reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

Low levels of manganese in the body can contribute to infertility, bone malformation, weakness, and seizures. It is fairly easy to get enough manganese in your diet -- this nutrient is found in whole grains, nuts, and seeds -- but some experts estimate that as many as 37% of Americans do not get the recommended dietary intake (RDI) of manganese in their diet. The American diet tends to contain more refined grains than whole grains, and refined grains only provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains.

Uses
Manganese may help some of the following conditions:

Osteoporosis
Manganese is one of several trace elements (including vanadium and boron) that are necessary for bone health. There is no specific evidence that manganese can prevent osteoporosis, but one study found that taking a combination of calcium, zinc, copper, and manganese helped lessen spinal bone loss in a group of post menopausal women.

Arthritis
People with arthritis tend to have low levels of SOD (an antioxidant that helps protect the joints from damage during inflammation). Some experts theorize that manganese may increase SOD levels, but there is no proof that it helps treat arthritis. A few clinical studies of people with rheumatoid and osteoarthritis suggest that manganese taken along with glucosamine and chondroitin can reduce pain.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
In one well-designed clinical study, women who ate 5.6 mg of manganese in their diets each day had fewer mood swings and cramps compared to those who ate only 1 mg of manganese.
 
Diabetes
Some studies seem to show that people with diabetes have low levels of manganese in their blood. But researchers don't know if having diabetes causes levels to drop, or whether low levels of manganese contribute to developing diabetes.

Epilepsy
Several clinical studies suggest that people who have seizure disorders have lower levels of manganese in their blood.

Possible Interactions
If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use manganese supplements without first talking to your health care provider.

Haloperidol and other antipsychotics --
There has been at least one clinical report of an interaction between haloperidol and manganese that resulted in hallucinations and behavioral changes in a person with liver disease. In addition, some experts believe that medications for schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis may worsen side effects from manganese supplements. If you take antipsychotic medications, do not take manganese without first talking to your doctor.

Reserpine -- 
A medication used to treat high blood pressure, may lower manganese levels in the body.

Antacids --
Magnesium-containing antacids may decrease the absorption of manganese if taken together. Take supplements containing manganese at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking antacids.

Laxatives --
Magnesium containing laxatives may decrease the absorption of manganese if taken together. Take supplements containing manganese at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking laxatives.

Tetracycline antibiotics --
These drugs may reduce the absorption of manganese if taken together. Take supplements containing manganese at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking these antibiotics. They include tetracycline, minocycline (Minocin), and demeclocycline (Declomycin).

Quinolone Antibiotics --
Manganese may inhibit the body's absorption of these medications.

The Following Content Provided by: Organic Facts

1) Healthy Bones:

2) Free Radicals:

3) Metabolism:

4) Inflammation and Sprains:

5) Preventing Osteoporosis:

6) Alleviating PMS syndrome:

7) Thyroid Health:

8) Aids in vitamin absorption:

9) Brain and nervous system:

10) Glucose Metabolism:

11) Digestive tract: 

12) Sugar level:

13) Epilepsy:

Suggested Food Sources:

Brown Rice
14
Asparagus and Spring Garlic Pico de Gallo Tortillas


Garbanzo Beans
15
Wild Ramp and Pea Shoot Hummus

Cinnamon 
16
Pumpkin and Cashew Power Porridge

Raspberries
17
Vanilla Lime Crêpes with Cherry Raspberry Compote


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